Mahatma Phule’s Vision of Balirajya and it’s Significance for Church and Society

  1. Introduction

Peshwa Brahmin rule was the most cruel rule in Pune, India where the Peshwa kings implemented the Law of Manu in full effect with severe implications on the ‘Untouchable person’. In Mughal period, Vedic Brahmins could not only protect their existence but got to deepen its roots and on the other side Buddhism was destroyed and banished. Bahujans were defeated, dehumanised and reduced to an extremely hopeless condition. However, during the British rule there was a huge social, educational and cultural change in modern India. Educationists like David Harrow, Missionary William Carrey and rulers like Macaulay’s great effort shook the Indian thinking, especially Brahmin elites who of course later became great channels  to protect their religions.[1] The brahmanic religion which survived on the poverty and superstition of Bahujans, was caught up in a whirlwind of the changes brought about by Christianity. A journey through Phule’s life reveals the deep impact that Christianity had on his life both in terms of his thoughts and ideas and also with regard to how he conducted his life in the light of the gospel.

  1. Phule’s background

Jotirao Phule was born in 1827 and was not even one year old when his mother Chimanabai passed away. His father Govindrao overcome with grief ceded his son to his cousin sister Sagunabai Kshirsagar who brought up Jotirao and his brother Rajaram with great affection. Sagunabai herself was a child-widow, working with Christian missionary called John and looking after orphans. According to the social order of the time the right to education was denied to any caste other than the higher caste. For this reason Govindrao could not get education, but he decided to educate his son Jotirao.

During the1840s, Phule was a student in the Free Church of Scotland’s mission school in Pune[2]. The most important aspect of missionaries determination in spite of the Brahmins’ constant opposition was that they admitted boys of Shudras and untouchables to their schools.[3] The missionaries taught Phule that God has created all men equal and religious merit or social status should be a function of individual conduct and not described by birth or by pre-determined system of hierarchical values and, God did not create caste but it is creation of Brahmin for their self-interest.[4] The teaching and evangelism of Christian missionaries stirred the young  mind of Phule to challenge the Vedic–Brahmanic teachings.[5]

  1. Baliraja

Baliraja was a pre-Vedic mythical aboriginal king who was an ideal ruler over Balisthan which is now India. Bali’s kingdom was so unique that even Brahmins could not stop themselves from writing about the ideal glimpse of his rule. In Bali’s kingdom justice and equality prevailed, people were happy and prosperous and women were highly respected. This was the reason why non-Brahmin women of India on the day of Balipratipada said -‘let all misery go and Bali’s kingdom come’.[6]

  1. Jesus as the second Baliraja

Phule has uniquely connected Jesus by giving a new interpretation to the reign of king Bali and titled Jesus as the Second Baliraja. He compared the sacrifice of Mahabali especially for the shuratishura with Jesus who sacrificed himself for the salvation the world. Phule had the highest regard for Jesus and His words (Bible) and he used Jesus’ teaching in his writings especially the golden rule and sermon on the mountain. Phule writes that Christian Missionaries were inspired by the dictum (word) of their  Baliraja of the West that is Jesus Christ.

It would not be hyperbolic to say that Phule was the first Indian who wrote Christology in 1873 from Balijan’s  perspective based on the life, teaching, character and mission of Jesus Christ the second Baliraja. Phule’s central theological thoughts are as follows:

The universal creator, the almighty God the father, ordained that the sacred knowledge of truth and human rights that he generously bestowed on us all should be enjoyed by all in amity and harmony. To translate this desire of the almighty into reality, Baliraja, the champion of oppressed, the holy, the repository of the wisdom, and who always spoke the truth-embodied[7] himself on this earth after a few years, he undertook the great mission of emancipating his depressed, oppressed and weak brethren from the trammels of the treacherous, wicked and cunning ensnarers-the Bhats (Brahmins) and strove to establish the ‘Kingdom of God’ in this land of ours.

Thus the prophecy of our venerable old ladies ‘May the Kingdom of Bali Come’! seems to have materialised (partially). When that Baliraja[8](Jesus Christ) was crucified on the cross[9] by a few wicked desperadoes a great movement of liberation was set in motion in Europe, and crores of people became his followers and they strove ceaselessly to establish his kingdom on earth in consonance with the dictates of our Creator.

  • Phule’s thought on Theology

Phule’s major theological contribution to Christianity is that he called back the memory of Bahujan people to the Christian vision of the returning their Saviour as Second Baliraja. Another notable factor is that the wholistic work of the missionaries influenced Phule to pioneer services that covered narishudratishudra life.

Phule’s concept of the kingdom of God was from Bible. As most scholars agree that there is no such idea of the kingdom of God on earth  in any Hindu scriptures or in Sanskrit language, except Bali’s kingdom and Ramrajya. Terms like Yashwant and  Nirmik  used by Phule clearly reflects biblical ideals. Phule’s Nirmik is nothing but God of equality and the description is very similar to the biblical account in Genesis 1:1-2:25, Mahadev Ka Vidhan.[10] Phule’s Nirmik seems much similar to the biblical creator God who created mankind in his own image equally as  male-female, not like Brahma who created  different castes from different parts of his body. Secondly, theGod of the Bible blessed both man-women equally, not like Aryan god who blessed the Brahmin with knowledge, Kshatriya with power, Vaishyas with wealth and Narishudratishudra with menial job and status. The third thing is that the God of Bible gave equal skill and energy and capacity to man-women (sabka vikash) to be active, productive and develop in all area of life, such as mental, physical, spiritual, social, economic, environmental etc. Fourthly, the God of the Bible gives equal authority to both men and women to rule over earth, water and sky  (rule over jal, thal, nabh) and over every living creature. Fifthly, God gave equal right to both man and women to eat. But when they committed sin by disobeying God’s commandment or in other words, when human beings trusted Satan’s false words than Nirmik,  then the creator God punished them equally. Finally God paved the equal path for the salvation of both men-women. Thus we see the shared creation, shared blessing, shared authority to rule, shared punishment and shared way out or salvation for both men and women( Mahadev ka Vidhan, Nirman  ki kitab 1:26-29).[11]

  1. Phule thought on Religion and Religious man

According to Phule, religion is made for man and not man for religion and his status is above the religion. Braj Ranjan Mani have rightly argued that Phule as a social revolutionary understood the power of culture and religion in the politics of transformation.  Phule was passionate about the necessity to dismantle the caste-centred Brahmanic Hinduism and build a new emancipatory religion. He was aware that the establishment of Balistan and Balirajya was not possible without providing a powerful religious alternative for the Dalit-Bahujans and therefore tried to make religion middleman less, casteless, monotheistic, and humane.[12]

For Phule, the requirement of true religion is service to mankind and defending human equality and freedom is the true essence of worship of God.[13] Phule’s ideas can be detected in various places in the scripture. For example,

Isaiah says that true spirituality must act to lose the chains of injustice and untie the cords of the yoke, to set the oppressed free, break every yoke, to share food with the hungry, providing the poor wanderer with shelter, giving cloth to the naked, not to turn away from your own flesh and blood. And then the glory of the Lord will be your rear guard and will answer your prayers ( Mahadev Ka Vidhan-Isaiah 58).

Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world. (Baliraja Ka Vidhan-James 1:27).

Phule tried to simplify[14] religion on the pattern of Christianity and rejected the complexity(uljhav) of Brahmanic religious worship. In order to make religion middleman less he replaced pooja system by prayer. In short, Phule believed that God created all men equal with equal right of freedom, right to rule, freedom of consciousness and justice, righteous is the one who respects the elder and parents, and does not use any kind of intoxicating things is satyachari, truth keeper, the true worshiper of God.[15] Who can worship God? Kami krodhi lalchi inse bhakti na hoy , bhakti kare koi surma jati varan kul khoy. Purity in sex, humulity in position, honesty in money, and pridless in caste.

  • Phule’s historical sketch  of Balijans’ emancipation from the brahmanic slavery  

By providing an alternative of Balirajya for Sudratishudra’s emancipation[16] Phule critically analysed the theological linchpin of Brahaminic Puranic concept of ten avatars of Vishnu and gave a new interpretation to it and connected Balijan to their pre-Vedic history.[17]Phule also discerned the brotherly reconciliation between Shudratshudra and missionaries that became the main cause for the birth of freedom movement in India.

Phule noticed the emancipatory power of “the Gospel of the  Kingdom of God” taught and preached by the Christian missionaries in emancipating our ignorant and Shudra brethren from inhuman slavery forced upon them by the Brahmins. The above- mentioned missionaries and our Shudra brethren will surely embrace each other as blood brothers.[18]

  • Kaliyuga as the Kalamyuga or epoch of pen, education

Phule was referring to a time when all people including women have right to education. In common Indian thought, British Raj was one of the most oppressive and wicked rule but Phule regarded the reign of Brahmanwad as the most wicked rule which has destroyed the aboriginals of India. Phule perceived the British Raj as the Kalamraj where God was emancipating  narishudratishudra from the slavery of Brahmans. Though, Phule did not use this term “Kalamraj” but based on his emphasis on education we can conclude that Phule basically fought against Brahmanic Satyuga for Kalamraj. In Brahmanic Satyug,[19] Brahman has absolute monopoly over education whereas in democratic Kalamyuga or Kaliyuga all people have equal right in every field. Satyug was never democratic and Kaliyuga is democratic because of its equal right to education to all.

  • Phule’s thoughts on conversion, manataran or repentance

Dharmantaran without Vichar parivartan is like removing Brahmanic deities pictures from the walls of our houses but culturally and rationally keeping them on the walls of our minds and hearts that reflects through our daily behaviour in the society. For instance, many Christians claim to be followers of the God of the Bible who created every human being in his own image and equal as man and woman but they still follow and practice the hierarchical caste system created by god Brahma and also consider themselves superior to women. In fact, it is confusing whether those believers are children of Brahma of Jesus? Dharmantaran or conversion without vichar parivartan is useless. Bible never talks about dharmantaran rather it talks about manataran or repentance, it is the transformation of heart and mind, especially mind. Phule never promoted dharmantaran  but he struggled for vichar parivartan or change of heart and mind. He asked people to leave the Brahmanic adharma. Phule encouraged Bahujan to discard all Brahamnical idea or vichar that has pushed SC, ST OBC and women into the ditch of lies and forced them in Brahmanic slavery for thousands of years. Phule further suggested that Bahujan will attain their mukti or salvation by the tools of having right education and by discarding the brahmanic scripture, the foundation of Bahujan slavery.

Phule denounced the Brahmanical authority and the Mohammedens rule and saw that the English people rose to prominence and prosperity from a barbarous state and God having endowed them worth with many admirable qualities such as bravery, and sent them to our country to accomplish His mission of releasing the helpless  Shudras and Ati-Shudras in our land. There are some benevolent and enlightened Englishmen who, inspired by the good teachings of a truly holy man of their religion the Satpurush (Christ).[20]

Phule, further elaborated this truly holy man, the inspiration of benevolent enlightened  Englishmen and his teachings. He also gave the meaning of  term Satpurush.

The name of their noble, enlightened and exalted holy man is Mahasatpurush that is ‘Yashwant’ (i.e. Jesus =Yeshu), and his noble teaching is- Love your enemies and do good unto them.[21] Phule relates the coming of the of the kingdom of God with gender justice thus – If we all men in the world follow the path of truth and do not deprive women of their inalienable human rights and treat one another with pure heart and holy feelings, (with love and charity) then the kingdom of God will come to pass where people will be knit together with pure heart, loving and fraternal bonds. In other words, if we do not respect women then the kingdom of God is not likely to come to pass in this unfortunate, helpless sorrow ridden world of ours, for the present.[22]

  • Phule and Wholistic Transformation

Like many Bahujan  heroes who worked, even unwittingly, as agents of the kingdom to influence, transform and develop their communities, Phule also as a kingdom person with kingdom value did kingdom work and helped Balijan people.

  1. Education

Phule couple between 1848 and 1852 opened 18 schools in Pune and surrounding areas. In 1855 they opened India’s first night schools in Pune where workers, farmers and domestic women who were busy working all day, came to study. The report of the Government Education Board of that time credited Phule for opening the first school for untouchables and establishing the first library for students.  The number of students studying in Jotirao’s school was ten times higher than government schools. The main reason for this was that the teaching system of Jotirao’s schools was better than the government schools.[23]

  • Protest against widow hair-balding

The motto of shaving the head of the widow was to break their morale by making them ugly. It was expected that the widows should follow celibacy throughout life and remain unmarried.  The widow hair shaving tradition came into being from the 12th century. Earlier only Brahmin widows were balded. Later this tradition spread to almost all upper castes. This practice was more in northern India. The widow’s face was considered to be inauspicious. They were not allowed to appear in public on any auspicious occasion. In fact, the Brahmins-priests used to take away the basic human rights of widows making their lives worse than hell. 

Mahatma Jotirao Phule was the first to protest against widow-hair shaving. He convened a meeting of the barbers in Bombay, in which 400-500 hairdressers were present and passed a declaration by consensus that barbers would not cut any widow’s hair. The barbers of other cities also stopped the inhumane work following their example. This also gave great relief to Brahmin widows. The brahmins who made money, in the name of pandit-priestly religion, by cutting hair from widows,  were exposed by Mahatma Phule through this work.

  • Widow remarriage and establishment of the child killing Prevention Home

The question of widow-remarriage was also related to the Brahmin and the upper castes oppression of that time. The sexual exploitation of the widows and their pregnancy led to the unborn children being brutally assassinated and some widows committing suicide. Mahatma Phule thought if such widows were secretly delivered and their children protected, then the oppressed, humiliated and neglected Brahmin widows would have the courage to leave the house and step out and this will prove to be a weapon against Brahminism. Mahatma Phule took two measures to deal with this problem.  He preached in favour of widow-remarriage, and secondly, he opened child-killing preventive home for the children of widows which was the first of such institution in India. In 1842, two widows were remarried in Belgaum, but this event was not given much publicity. On March 8, 1860, the marriage of a widow and widower of Sevani caste in Pune was inspired by the social reformation of Jotirao Phule.[24] In 1863, Jotirao established this child-killing restrictive home in his own home and Savitribai became the babysitter of this home. She became the mother of the orphaned children and brought them up with full affection. She learned the method of Christians nurturing children from Mrs. Sagunabai. In 1874 a Brahmin widow named Kashi Bai gave birth to a son and Savitribai adopted the baby boy and named him Yashwant. She did not care about the opinions of the society and relatives. Due to this incident Jotirao and Savitribai had to undergo a lot of social and personal suffering because the fundamentalists were persecuting them.

  • Jotirao’s rejected second marriage

Mahatma Phule had no children, therefore his father wanted him to marry another woman. Shree Khandu Nevse Patil, Savitribai’s father was asked to influence Jotirao.  But Jotirao was not among those who counted their manhood on the basis of the number of children. He said to his father-in-law, ‘Your point is right, but I also have a condition on that Jotirao said, ‘You are asking to bring Savitri’s sautan, then give me permission to bring Sauta for her. Are you ready to give permission to Savitri for another marriage by accepting my condition? Remarriage of husband with another woman is a very harsh and cruel practice, if the reason being only that the wife does not have children.  

  • The funeral of his father

Jotirao buried his father contradicting Brahminical rites. Being a logical (rationalist), he did not believe in the traditional practice of Pinddan, and feeding the crows. Rather than feeding the Brahmins, he fed the orphans and disabled and distributed books and other things to poor students.

With regard to reverence Jotirao said that it is an irony that when the living parents yearn to eat, they are not fed two full-time meals, but on their death, they give big Brahman bhoj or roti bhat. This is the trick of sly people. Actually serving the living parents is the true religion.

  • Allowing untouchables to use his personal well

The untouchables were not allowed to draw water from the common wells or ponds and many times they had to beg others to draw water for them, and often were rejected and not allowed. In 1868 Jotirao decided to allow the untouchable people to draw water from his home well. But they did not had the courage to draw water from his home as fear gripped their minds by believeing the false ideologies of religious fundamentalists. Then Jotirao took them to his well holding their hands and when they had finished drawing water, he laid the vessels on their heads.

  • Phule’s personal life and the Christian impact

Every person’s life and service  is a refection of his/her worldview, sourced and shaped by their faith, culture and values which is demonstrated by their lips service and life service ( Kathani and Karni ). Christ first preached by his life and then gave his lips service. A man of integrity basically is known by his or her life and lips service. Phule a true follower of  Yeshua Baliraja preached and practiced what he believed.Phule was a true hearer and practitioner of God’s word, as the Bible says- Do not merely listen to the word, and so deceive yourselves. Do what it says (James 1:22).

  1. Phule at personal level.

One of the main goal of Yeshua Baliraja’s  incarnation was to forgive sinners and reconcile them with God the father, the Nirmik. Yeshu Baliraja commanded his disciples to forgive their enemies too. Phule as his follower forgave thousands of his enemies and even those who came to murder him. Jesus said love your enemy as yourself.  Phule obeyed Christ in his every day life as God’s word says, “ Obedience is better than sacrifice.”

  • Family level

Phule was an ideal husband. He taught his illiterate wife and helped her to become the first Indian women teacher. Phule believed that God created both man and women equal, equal birth right to rule  over, equal birth right to enjoy and equal birth right free will to choose. Equal right for freedom of expression. Phule was radically against polgandry.  He further said, “every man and women has right to choose only one wife and husband except one all other are brother and sisters.[25] He believed it, taught it and lived it.

  • Satya Shodhak Samaj

After giving his 25 years for social service Phule understood the challenges he would have to face in bringing about changes in the society. Jyotirao realized that the whole essence of the Hindu religion was incorporated into their false religious books, through which the Brahmin priests established themselves as god on earth-Bhudevta. Jyotirao realized that till the time the strength of priesthood is not decreased, the efforts to change the community would be of no effect. This thought led to the establishment of ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’ on 24th September 1873. In my opinion, like Martin Luther,  the biblical idea of priesthood of all believers would have played an important role to form the Satyashodak Samaj. The vision of this movement was to uproot the spiritual and societal slavery from the community. It was the first such type of societal, cultural and spiritual movement ever started in Maharashtra for the betterment of the community. Phule’s biblical kingdom based wholistic movement, the Truth Seekers society strived for complete or mukkamal and Amul chul  change.  The society met every Sunday, prayed, discussed about religion, and read the Bible and other religious texts.[26]

  1. Principles of Satyashodhak Samaj

The foundational belief of Satya Shodhak Samaj is that God is One. He cannot be bound within a cave or mountain or river or temples, since He is omnipresent. God never shows any partiality to Hindu or Muslim or Christian or Brahmin. He loves everyone equally. Everyone has the right to worship God and we do not need any broker or any person in between. Man is known by his character and not by his caste. It is a false ideology spread by the Brahmin priests that those who are born high caste are more privileged than those who are born in a low caste family. As a result, the will power of the backward caste community became weak. The hold of full birth, activity and chanting creates ignorance. It was a common belief that without getting the Sanskrit shlokas read by a Brahmin priest, a common man cannot find God. But Jotirao told that the Brahmins spread this understanding to maintain their respect and honor before people. He asked if God understood only Sanskrit, then does He not understand the prayers of Christians, Muslims, and people of other religions ? In our country, where various saints prayed to God in their own native languages, are their prayers yet to reach God? Satyashodhak teaches that expenses be reduced in marriages and no Brahmin priest be called for any functions to narrate Sanskrit shlokas. The functions should be in their respective local languages and organised with everyone’s cooperation.

  • Objectives of Satyashodhak Samaj

Satyashodhak Samaj’s objectives to bring revolutionary changes included

  • To deliver people from the mental and spiritual slavery of Brahmins.
  • To stop the exploitation of masses carried out by the Brahmin priests.
  • To spread awareness and educate the masses.
  • To educate women.
  • To eradicate untouchability.
  • To protect the rights of women.
  • To promote social work among small children, blind and disabled.
  • To promote honesty and integrity.
  • The pledge taken by Satyashodhak Samaj member

Every person is a child of only one God. Therefore, all men and women are my brothers and sisters and I will treat them accordingly. I will not take the help of any middleman while worshipping or meditating on God and will encourage others as well. I will educate my sons and daughters. I am taking this pledge keeping the truthful God as my witness. Let God give me strength to live according to this pledge which I have taken.

The membership for Satyashodhak Samaj has been open for the peoples of all castes and religion.

  • The meeting of Satyashodhak members

In every branches of Satyashodhak Samaj, members meet once in a week. In these meetings, topics such as alcohol deaddiction, compulsory education, using indigineous items, removing Brahmin priests from all spiritual areas, arranging marriages in less expensive ways, delivering the masses from the fear of ghosts, astrologers, devil, etc are discussed. Along with that, preaching against idol worship and caste discrimination is also stressed. Satyashodhak Samaj was not against the Brahmins but against the Brahmin ideologies which exploited the masses in the name of religion. In short, Phule delivered at least 5-fold ministry – teaching, preaching, healing, ministry of mercy and prophetic ministry by his lips and life.

  1. Conclusion

Phule as the Bahujan prophet prophesised two things – First, the coming of the kingdom of Yeshua Baliraja and second, if the Brahmins  who do not heed to the advice of gospel of the great holy man Jesus and fail to discard their false religious book then, the almighty himself will enable the Shudras and Ati-Shudras themselves to condemn and ridicule their heretical scriptures. This prophecy of Phule  can be seen being fulfilled  in the past and present and in the future. The second prophecy was partially fulfilled on 25th December 1927 when Ambedkar burnt the Manusmriti publically.

Thus we can see Phule invited Jesus in his life and family and then he appealed all the Shudras and Ati-Shudras to accept Baliraj as their saviour. However, more than Christianity offering salvation, it represents for him an escape from oppressive Brahmanism.

Bibliography

Chandapuri, R.L., Bharat mein Brahmanraj aur Pichda Warg Andolan : Isai Dharm aur Bharat,  (Vaisali Printers , Shree Krishnapuri , Patna 1996), 53.

Jaffarelot, Christophe , Dr. Ambedkar and Untouchability  Analysing and Fighting Caste (Permanent Black, Delhi , 2005), p.11.

Jagtap. Murlidhar., Yugpurush Mahatma Phule, Bombay : Education Department of  Maharashtra Mantralaya, 1993.

Joshi, Tarkateertha Laxmanshastri., Jotirao Phule, New Delhi: National Book Trust India,1992.

Keer Dhananjay., Mhatma Jotirao Phooley: Father of Indian Social Revolution,  3rd Edition, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd.,2013.

Mani, Braj Ranjan., Debrahmanising History: Dominance and Resistance in Indian Society, New Delhi : Manohar Publishers & Distributers, 2008.

Narke, Hari., Sanatani Brahman evam Pragatisheel Brahman:  Ek Shareer ke do Bhaujayen, Pune: Mulniwasi Publication Trust, 2013.

O’Hanlon. Rosalind., Caste, Conflict and Ideology, Mahatma Jotirao Phule and low caste protest in Nineteenth-century western India, London: Cambridge University press, 1985.

Phule, Jotirao. CWMJP, Vol. I, Slavery (Tran.) P.G. Patil, Bombay : Education Department of   Maharashtra Mantralaya, 1991.

Phule, Jotirao. Sarvajanik Satyadhrma, Tran. by Vedkumar Vedalankar, Bombay : Education Department of  Maharashtra Mantralaya, 1995.

Panditramtejpandey.,(commentary.), Shrimadalmikiya Ramayanam: Uttar Kanda, Sarga 74, Salok 1-27, (Choukhamba Sanskrit Prishthan, Delhi, Sambavat 2024). p1674.  Uttar Kanda , p.1741-1743 .

Roy, Arundhati. The Doctor and The Saint. New Delhi: Navayana. 2013

Website

https://www.gotquestions.org/finished-the-race.html,(contest between good and evil).[27]


[1] R.L., Chandapuri,  Bharat mein Brahmanraj aur Pichda Warg Andolan : Isai Dharm aur Bharat, (Vaisali Printers , Shree Krishnapuri , Patna 1996), 53.

[2] O’hanlon. Rosalind., Caste, Conflict and Ideology, Mahatma Jotirao Phule and low caste protest in Nineteenth-century western India, (London: Cambridge University press, 1985), p.105

[3] Ibid., p.109. p.105

[4] O’hanlon. Rosalind., Caste, Conflict and Ideology, Mahatma Jotirao Phule and low caste protest in Nineteenth-century western India, (London: Cambridge University press, 1985), p.69-70.

[5] Ibid., p.66.

[6] Joshi, Tarkateertha Laxmanshastri. Jotirao Phule.(New Delhi: National Book Trust India,1992). pp. 91.

[7] Became flesh, invisible became visible, unreachable became reachable.

[8] Sacrificed King. One who became Baldan for all.

[9] Phule gave reason of death of Christ Jesus through whose palms strong iron nails were driven on the Cross- CWMJP, Sarvajanik Satyadharm Pushtak . Vol. II,  (Tran.) P.G. Vedkumar Vedalankar. (Bombay:  Education Department of  Maharashtra Mantralaya, 1995), p 37.

[10] Mahadeva  means the almighty God, the creator of whole universe, there is no temple, there is no middle man between  Him and men but only  son  that is Jesus Christ, know body have seen Him.  Vidhan means –infallible word. Simple meaning of Mahadev ka Vidhan is –the Old Testament.

[11] Mahadea ka Vidhan  means Old Testament. Nirman ki kitab means book of Genesis.

[12] Ibid., p. 97.

[13] Joshi, Tarkateertha Laxmanshastri. Jotirao Phule.( New Delhi: National Book Trust India,1992) p.48.

[14] Simplification means sarlikaran– Phule by adopting Christian pattern of worship tried to solve or suljhaya the Brahmanic religious complexity or uljhav. Brhamwad uljhaya Phule ne suljhaya.

[15] Ibid., pp.64-65.

[16] Jagtap. Murlidhar, Yugpurush Mahatma Phule.  (Bombay : Education Department of  Maharashtra Mantralaya, 1993), pp.162-166.

[17] Phule, Jotirao. CWMJP, Vol. I, Slavery (Tran.) P.G. Patil. (Bombay : Education Department of   Maharashtra Mantralaya, 1991). pp.29-190.

[18] How can a person will become ‘blood brother- in Christ people become blood brother and sister because they are bought by the blood of Christ. After embracing Christ, it is the power of  His blood that  rules person’s life and reconciles  them to become the  member children of one family or family of God. John 1:12.

[19] Panditramtejpandey.,(commentary.), Shrimadalmikiya Ramayanam: Uttar Kanda, Sarga 74, Salok 1-27, (Choukhamba Sanskrit Prishthan, Delhi, Sambavat 2024). p1674.  Uttar Kanda , p.1741-1743 .

[20] Ibid., p.11.

[21] Ibid., p.11.

[22] Ibid., pp.19-20.

[23] Jagtap. Murlidhar, Yugpurush Mahatma Phule.  (Bombay : Education Department of  Maharashtra Mantralaya, 1993).pp. 43, 45.

[24] Mahatma Jotiba Phule Vani, Madhya Pradesh Joint Mali Samaj Mahasabha, Indore, 2005, p. 65

[25] Jagtap. Murlidhar, Yugpurush Mahatma Phule.  (Bombay: Education Department of  Maharashtra Mantralaya, 1993), p. 131

[26] Ibid., p.116

[27] O’Hanlon, Caste, Conflict and Ideology, p. 203.

Acharya Ram Surat is a Training Facilitator on Caste and Reconciliation. He completed his B.D from Union Biblical Seminary, Pune and his Ph.D from the Centre for Advanced Theological Studies at Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences,  Allahabad. He is also a Society member of TRACI.

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